For the following hypotheses, identify the Independent and Dependent Variables. Additionally, operationalize each unclear independent variable in terms of PRECISE experimental manipulations, and operationalize each unclear dependent or correlational variable in terms of precise observations or measures.

(1) Women are more attracted to men without earrings than men with earrings.

a. What is the independent variable?

b. How would you operationalize the independent variable?

c. What is the dependent variable?

d. How would you operationalize the dependent variable?

(2) Rewards are more effective than punishments in changing behavior.

a. What is the independent variable?

b. How would you operationalize the independent variable?

c. What is the dependent variable?

d. How would you operationalize the dependent variable?

(3) People learn more when they study in a quiet versus noisy place.

a. What is the independent variable?

b. How would you operationalize the independent variable?

c. What is the dependent variable?

d. How would you operationalize the dependent variable?

(4) Young women look in the mirror more often than older women.

a. What is the independent variable?

b. How would you operationalize the independent variable?

c. What is the dependent variable?

d. How would you operationalize the dependent variable?

(5) Eating sugar decreases physical strength.

a. What is the independent variable?

b. How would you operationalize the independent variable?

c. What is the dependent variable?

d. How would you operationalize the dependent variable?