All questions are involved in the Word document, and most of the questions are choice questions.

Before you answer the questions:

- Recode your data according to the codebook
- Remember to create a new formula column with a useful variable name
- A . is missing in a numeric variable, a space is missing in a categorical variable

- Race and ethnicity have been coded for you
- Use the Analyze > Distribution on all of your variables before you answer the questions below
- Jarson County Department of Health (JCDH). You have been asked to prepare a statistical report on the predictors of low birth weight among infants born to mothers in Birmingham, AL. Your first step is to examine the codebook for this data set to see what variables are available for your statistical analysis.
**The codebook and data set are linked on Canvas.**Before you answer the questions:

- Recode your data according to the codebook
- Remember to create a new formula column with a useful variable name
- A . is missing in a numeric variable, a space is missing in a categorical variable

- Race and ethnicity have been coded for you
- Use the Analyze > Distribution on all of your variables before you answer the questions below

Remember, you know how to do all of this! Slow and steady wins the JMP race!

**Question 1.**How many cases are in this data set?

**Question 2.**What is the average age for women in this sample? Report using 1 decimal place.

**Question 3.**Which of the following variables would be appropriate as

**outcomes**for a t-test or ANOVA, based on variable type? Mark all that apply.- Birth Weight
- Weight at Last Menstrual Period
- Age of Mother

**Question 4.**You are interested in exploring the relationship between race and average birthweight (measured in grams). What is the most appropriate statistical technique to determine if a relationship exists between these variables in the population?

- ANOVA
- T-test
- Chi-square hypothesis test
- Contingency table analysis

**Question 5.**Which null hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected?

- mu1 = mu2 = mu3
- mu1 = mu2
- All the sample means are the same
- The variables are independent

**Question 6.**Which alternative hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected?

- At least one population mean differs.
- mu1≠mu2≠mu3
- At least one sample mean differs.
- The variables are dependent.

**Question 7.**What test statistic will be used for this hypothesis test?

- t
- F
- Chi-square
- p-value

Question 8.Will the alpha level be divided in half for this test?

- No
- Yes

**Question 9.**What is the exact p-value from this hypothesis test, based on your analysis in JMP? (enter p-value)

**Question 10.**What is your decision for this hypothesis test?

- Fail to reject
- Reject

**Question 11.**What can you conclude about the relationship between these variables, based on this hypothesis test? Include all appropriate results in an interpretation suitable for a general audience. (Open text response)

**Question 12.**You suspect there may be a relationship between mother’s age and average birth weight of infants (measured in grams). What should be your first step to determine if a linear relationship exists between these variables in the population?

- scatterplot
- ANOVA
- t-test
- average

**Question 13.**Which null hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected?

- There is no relationship between the variables in the population; the variables are dependent.
- mu1 = mu2 = mu3
- r = 0
- mu1 = mu2

**Question 14.**Which alternative hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected?

- There is a relationship between the variables in the population; the variables are dependent.
- mu1≠mu2≠mu3
- At least one sample mean differs.
- r ≠ 0

**Question 15.**What test statistic will be used for this hypothesis test?

- Chi-squared (likelihood ratio)
- t
- F
- p-value

**Question 16.**Will the alpha level be divided in half for this test?

- No
- Yes

**Question 17.**What is the exact p-value from this hypothesis test, based on your analysis in JMP?

(Open text response)

**Question 18.**What is your decision for this hypothesis test?

- Reject
- Fail to Reject

**Question 19.**What can you conclude about the relationship between these variables, based on this analysis and hypothesis test? Include all appropriate results in an interpretation suitable for a general audience. (Open text response)

**Question 20.**You read a study that found that women with a history of hypertension had babies with lower average birthweights than women without a history of hypertension. What is the most appropriate statistical technique to determine if a relationship exists between these variables in the population?

- t-test
- ANOVA
- Chi-square hypothesis test
- Contingency table analysis

**Question 21.**Which null hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected?

- mu0=mu1
- mu1=mu2=mu3
- The variables are independent.
- mu1≠mu2

**Question 22.**Which alternative hypothesis would be appropriate, given the statistical test you have selected? [Note: Be sure to check the coding of this variable in the codebook before determining the alternative hypothesis.]

- mu0>mu1
- mu0<mu1
- mu0≠mu1
- mu0=mu1

**Question 23.**What is your decision for this hypothesis test?

- Reject
- Fail to Reject

**Question 24.**What can you conclude about the relationship between these variables, based on this hypothesis test? Include all appropriate results in an interpretation suitable for a general audience. (Open text response)

**Question 25.**Low birth weight is defined as less than or equal to 2500 grams, while normal birth weight is >2500 grams. Create an indicator for low birth weight. How many cases are in the low birth weight group? (enter a number)

**Question 26.**Select one predictor and one outcome variable (in a combination not already examined above) from this dataset and conduct the appropriate hypothesis test. Write a short paragraph to explain the results of the analysis to a general audience. (Open text response)

**Introduction for Ethiopia Research**As the Jefferson County Department of Health expert on the correlates of low birth weight, you have been asked to examine the international literature to see how Jefferson County compares to other countries.

Examine the article below on low birth weight in Ethiopia and respond to the following questions. You may need to conduct additional analyses using the Jefferson County low birth weight data set, but all information about low birth weight in Ethiopia should come from the article (you do not have any data so you cannot conduct analyses in JMP).

Incidence and correlates of low birth weight Ethiopia.pdf (Available in Midterm Material Module)

**Question 27.**What is the population of inference for the study described in this article?

- All mothers giving birth.
- Mothers giving birth at Gondat University Hospital in Ethiopia.
- All women in Ethiopia.

**Question 28.**How many cases are in the final analytic sample of this study on low birth weight in Ethiopia? (enter a number)

**Question 29.**What variable type is “age” in the article on Ethiopia, based on how it is presented in the table?

- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Continuous
- Dichotomous

**Question 30.**For which variables in Table 1 of the article on Ethiopia would it be appropriate to calculate cumulative percentages? Mark all that apply.

- Age
- Residence
- Educational status
- Occupation
- Family size

**Question 31.**Recode the “age” variable in the Jefferson County low birth weight dataset so that it matches the age variable in the article on Ethiopia. Which study has a higher proportion of mothers in the oldest age group?

- The study on Ehtiopia.
- The study using the Jefferson County data.
- There is not enough information to tell.

**Question 32.**Which study had a higher proportion of low birth weight infants born to mothers in the study?

- The study on Ehtiopia.
- The study using the Jefferson County data.
- There is not enough information to tell.

**Question 33.**Write one paragraph to compare the low birth weight outcome in each study, using the interpretation guidelines for frequency distributions. (Open text response)

**Data Table Introduction**Use the data below to answer the following questions. You do not need to look up any additional data or calculate anything in JMP; a simple calculator is adequate for all required calculations.

Region 10 includes Birmingham

Regions 3 includes Tuscaloosa

TB Cases in Alabama Public Health Regions, 2015 **Region 10****Region 3**0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 10 0 1 Source: Alabama Department of Public Health **Question 34.**For which distribution should we “beware of the mean”? Explain. (Open text response)

**Question 35.**Would you report the five number summary or mean/SD for each of these distributions (assuming you had all necessary values, no additional calculations are needed to answer this question)? Why? (Open text response)

**Given all of the information and analysis in this exam on low birth weight, summarize your conclusions and propose a public health study (with or without an intervention) to address this problem. Identify your question of interest, the population, your sample and how you would get it, and at least 5 variables you would need to collect and why (include the type of variable and how it will be collected), and how you would conduct the analysis for your question of interest. (Open text response, limit one page)** - Recode your data according to the codebook